A brief introduction about history:

The English word ‘History’ is derived from the Greek noun ‘Historia’ . History or “Historia” simply means ‘enquiry’
or ‘ research’ the term ‘History’ has been taken from the German word ‘Geschichle’ means intelligible and significant narration of the past events . In fact development of history started with the ancient Greek historians such as Herodotus and Thucydides. Herodotus popularly known as the ‘father of History’ wrote about the Graeoco- Persian wars which contains a mine of information including those relating to the ancient Egypitans and Persians. Thucydides developed this subject on scientific lines. He wrote the “Pelopenesian wars” on the basis of evidence and showed the relation between causes and effects or results. History deals with events that have happened in the past . It tells us: how men lived from age to age , what problems men and women faced, how they tried to solve those problems.
History tells you how people lived in the past, how they grew the plants which gave them food, what kind of pots they used for cooking, what tools and weapons they used. In short, it is the study of the past.

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Yadava dynasty:

About Yadava Dynasty
The Yadava was an important Hindu dynasty of central India that flourished in Indian subcontinent from 12th to 14th century AD. Yadava dynasty is also known as Seuna dynasty. Dridhaprahara was the founder of the dynasty and ruled the dynasty under the lordship of Rashtrakutas from 850 AD. Bhillama-V, one of the most powerful rulers of this dynasty is known for establishing theindependent Yadava Kingdom. Thecapital of the dynasty was Devagiri, present day Daulatabad of Maharashtra was founded by Bhillama-V. The Yadava Kingdom covered Maharashtra, north Karnataka and parts of Madhya Pradesh stretching from the river Tungabhadra to the river Narmada.

Rulers of Yadava Dynasty
Bhillama-V was the first ruler of the independent Yadava Kingdom, ascended the throne in 1173 AD and rule the dynasty till 1192 AD. He was a powerful ruler and founded the Yadavas capital Devagiri. Singhana II is considered to be the most powerful king of Yadavas, succeeded his father Jaitugi I in 12oo AD. The Yadava dynasty came to the end when the Khilji ruler occupied the Yadava capital Devagiri in 14th century AD.

The Elephanta caves:

The Elephanta Caves are located in Raigad district on island hills of Elephanta Island. It is about 11 km north-east of the Apollo Bandar of Mumbai and and 7 km from the shore of the mainland. Earlier the island was known as Gharapuri but Portuguese renamed it to Elephanta as it had a huge gigantic statue of an Elephant at the entrance. The elephant statue is presently placed at Jijamata Garden in Mumbai. Historians believe that different dynasties contributed the different segments of the Elephanta Caves, notably Mauryas of Konkan, Badami and Kalyani Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Yadavas etc.

Caves of Elephanta
Elephanta has total seven caves built during 6th – 7th centuries AD, out of which the most notable is the Cave 1,Shiva cave. The cave is most famous for its amazing rock-cut architecture and sculptures. The cave has a central hall supported by six rows of pillars and three opening including the main entrance on the north. The most famous breathtaking sculpture known as Mahesa-murti is one of the main attractions of this cave. It has other splendid sculptures of Siva, Siva and Parvati, Nataraja, Kalyanasundara murti, Gangadhara murtiand Ravana shaking Kailasa.

Ellora caves

Preface
The Ellora caves are located in Aurangabad city of Maharashtra. Most of caves were built during the period ofRashtrakuta dynasty. There are total 34 “caves” those were carved out of the vertical face of the Charanandri hills. The caves at Ellora were of three distinct categories. There are 12 Buddhist caves,17 Hindu caves and 5 Jain caves.

The Buddhist Caves
The Buddhist caves at Ellora were built during 5th-7th century AD. These are mainly viharas or monasteries and were used for study, meditation, communal rituals, eating and sleeping. The cave 2 has number of sculptures of seated Buddhas arranged in rows. Cave 10 is famous and known as Carpenter’s Caveor ‘Vishvakarma cave’ with a 3.3 m high seated Buddha at the far end. Cave 11 has the images of Durga and Ganesh also a Buddha shrine, historians believe that the cave was converted into a Hindu temple after it was deserted by the Buddhists.

The Hindu Caves
The Hindu caves were constructed during 6th and 8th century AD, some of them were constructed during the Rashtrakuta period. The most notable cave among the Hindu caves is Cave 16 which is also known as Kailasa orKailasanatha or Kailasa Temple, the abode of Lord Shiva. The multi-storeyed temple was carved out of a single rock. It is a marvel of architecture with many sculptures. Historians believe that the Kailasa Temple was built by Rashtrakuta Emperor Krishna I. The cave 15 is known as Das Avatara and has sculptural panels of different incarnations of Lord Vishnu. The cave 21 is one of the oldest caves of Ellora, known as Ramesvara includes the sculpture of river goddesses Ganga and Yamuna. Cave 25 has the sculpture of the Lord Surya (i.e. Sun). Cave 29 is renowned for the grand sculpture ofRavana attempting to lift Shiva and Parvati.

The Jain Caves
The Jain caves at Ellora belonged to the Digambara faction. It has total five Jain caves. The most notable Jain caves are the cave 30 (Chhota Kailash), the cave 32 ( Indra Sabha) and cave 33 ( Jagannath Sabha ).

Rashtrakuta Dynasty:

Origin:

The Rashtrakutas called themselves descendants of one named Satyaki. But there is difference of opinion about their origin among the historians. According to some they were originally of Dravidian peasant extraction. From some of the inscriptions of the Chalukya kings it is known that the Rashtrakutas were feudatories of the Chalukyas. Perhaps their original home wasKarnatakaand their mother tongue was Kanarese.

Founder:

The founder of the Rashtrakuta power wasDantivarman or Dantidurga. The Rashtrakuta King Dantivarman or Dantidurga was contemporary of Chalukya King Pulakesin II. Dantidurga occupied all territories between the Godavari and Vima. Dantidurga is said to have conquered Kalinga, Kosala, Kanchi, Srisril, Malava, Lata etc. He annexed Maharashtra to his kingdom by defeating Chalukya King Kirtivarma.

Krishna I:

Dantidurga was succeeded by his uncle Krishna I. He conquered the territories thatwere still under the Chalukyas and thereby competed conquest of the Chalukya territories. He also occupied Konkan. It is not known for certain the name of the country over which Rahappa used to rule. Vishnuvardhana of Vengi and the Ganga king of Mysore were defeated at the handsof the Rashtrakuta King Krishna I.The Kailash Temple at Ellora was built by the Rashtrakuta King Krishna I. He was a great patron of art and architecture.

Govinda II:

Krishnaraja’s eventful career came to an end within a very short time and he was succeeded by his son Govindaraj who ruled for some time as Govinda II. His worthlessness as a ruler and his lack of interest in administration led to his deposition by his brother Dhruva who ascended the throne himself.

Dhruva:

Dhruva was by far the best ruler of the Rashtrakuta dynasty. He ruled for a short span of time but within this short time he entered into struggle with the Gurjara-Pratihara King Vatsyaraja and defeated him signally. He also like wise defeated thePallavas of Kanchi and the Pala King Dharmapala of Bengal.

Govinda III:

Dhruva was succeeded by Govinda III his son and with almost equal vigor as of his father. He succeeded in keeping the Gurjara power sufficiently under control. He defeated the great Gurjara King Nagabhatta II. It is said that the Pala King Dharmapala and his protégé Charayudh sought the help of Govinda III.

Govinda III made the Rashtrakutas dynasty one of the most powerful dynasties of contemporary India. His kingdom spread up to the Vindhyas and Malava in the north and the river Tungabhadra to the south.

Amoghavarsha I:

The greatest king of the Rashtrakuta dynasty was Amoghavarsha I. As a warrior he was, however, no match with his father Govinda III, but he succeeded in defeating the East-Chalukya kings. Amoghavarsha I set up a new capital atManyakheta (now Malkhed in Karnataka State) and during his reign Broach becamethe best port of his kingdom.Amoghavarsha I was a great patron of education and literature. From the evidence of the Jaina works it is known that Amoghavarsha was converted into Jainism by Jinasena, a Jaina monk. Amoghavarsha spent the accumulated wealth of his predecessors to beautify his kingdom.Suleman, an Arab merchant, in his accountcalled Amoghavarsha I as one of the four greatest kings of the world, the other three being the Caliph of Bagdad, the king of Constantinople and the emperor of China.

Krishna II:

Amoghavarsha ruled for 63 years and he was succeeded by his son Krishna II who in his turn was succeeded by Indra III.Indra IIIIndra III was a powerful king. He defeated and deposed Mahipala.The Rashtrakuta Kings Amoghavarsha II, Govinda IV and Amoghavarsha III were weak kings.

Krishna III:

The last powerful and efficient king of the Rashtrakutas was Krishna III. He had a prolonged struggle with Mahipala, the Gurjara king. He also succeeded in conquering Tanjore and Kanchi. In the middle of the tenth century for a time he succeeded in defeating the Tamil kings of Chola kingdom. But towards the end of thesame century the Rashtrakuta King Kaka was defeated and deposed by Taila or Tailapa, the Chalukya king of Kalyani. With Kaka’s defeat the Rashtrakuta power cameto an end.

Conclusion:

The Rashtrakuta kings maintained a friendly relation with the Arabs of Sind. When theGurjara-Pratiharawas engaged in fierce struggle against the Arabs, the Rashtrakutas were profiting by carrying on trade with the Arabs. By way of this business relation a large number of Arab merchants came to the Rashtrakuta kingdom. Suleiman was the Arab merchantand was the most celebrated of them.

About Pallava dynasty:

Pallava Dynasty was an ancient Indian dynasty that flourished in southern India and ruled from early fourth century AD to ninth century AD. Many historians describe the periods of Pallavas as early Pallavas, medieval Pallavas and later Pallavas. The history of the early Pallavas is not very clear.

Simhavishnu was the founder of later Pallavas and founded the Dynasty in the mid of sixth century AD. The capital of Pallava Dynasty was Kanchi which was captured by Pallavas from Cholas.Samudragupta, the great emperor of Gupta Dynasty defeated Vishnugopa of medieval Pallavas and took control of Kanchi. Later, Simhavishnu re-captured Kanchi from Gupta ruler. The Pallava Dynasty expanded to a vast area including Tiruchchirapalli, Tanjore and Chennai.

Rulers of later Pallava Dynasty
Simhavishnu was the first ruler of the later Pallava Dynasty. He engaged in many battles with Chola and Pandyakings. Mahendravarman-I, son of Simhavishnu succeeded his father and ascended the throne of Pallava Dynasty in 590 AD. He is believed to be the first great ruler of the dynasty. Mahendravarman-I was succeeded by his son Narasimhavarman-I. At the time of Mahendravarman-I, Chalukya ruler defeated the Pallavas but later Narasimhavarman defeated the Chalukya ruler and took the avenge. Some of the other great kings of Pallava Dynasty were Mahendravarman II, Paramesvaravarman I, Narasimhavarman II and Paramesvaravarman II.

Great Architectures of Pallavas
Pallavas are famous for the great art and architectures. The famous rock-cut temples at Mahabalipuram were built during the reign of Pallavas. The famousKailasanatha temple of Lord Shiva at Kanchipuram was built by Pallava KingNarasimhavarman II, also known as Raja Simha. Raja Simha also built the Shore Temple dedicated to Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva at Mahabalipuram.

About Aryabhata:

Aryabhata was one of the greatest mathematicians and astronomers from Gupta era. He was born in 476 AD. His most important contribution to Indian mathematics and astronomy areAryabhatiya and Arya-siddhanta. In 499 AD, when he was only 23 years old he wrote his famous Sanskrit astronomical treatise “Aryabhatiya “.

Contribution in Mathematics and Astronomy
It is believed that Aryabhata invented theconcept of zero. He used the concept of the sine and cosine and defined the sine table, which he called jya and kojya. He is considered as the pioneer of the birth of trigonometry. Aryabhata is also known for the use of the place value system. He provided the algorithms to calculate the square and cubic roots. Aryabhata calculated the value of “pi” as 3.1416. He worked upon arithmetic and algebra also used Quadratic equations, compound interest, proportions and linear equations.

Aryabhata believed, “the earth rotates about its own axis daily”. He measured the time duration of day and year almost accurately. He calculated the earth ‘s rotation time as 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.1 seconds and the length of a year as 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes and 30 seconds. Aryabhata scientifically described the Solar and lunar eclipses. He also correctly explained the light of the Moon and planets as the reflection of sunlight. Aryabhata also mentioned the earth circumference as 24835 miles, very near to actual value 24900 mile